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Facilities & Installations

The Goliath VLF Radio Transmitter at Kalbe, Germany

Between 1943 and 1945, the German Kriegsmarine employed a very-low-frequency (VLF) transmitter known as Goliath for worldwide submarine communications. The transmitter, located at Kalbe and der Milde, was the was the most powerful transmitter of its time, capable of reaching submerged U-boats in the Carribean.

Goliath was dismantled by the Soviets in 1946 and reassembled at Kudma, near Nizhny Novogorod between 1949 and 1952, when it became the Soviet Navy’s main submarine communications facility. The umbrella antenna design was adopted for use at several other Soviet VLF facilities.

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